Canadian gambling trends and public policy issues
Jul 11, · Canada experienced a dramatic increase in legalized gambling in the s, primarily because of governments' need to increase revenue without additional taxation. This article examines gambling from a public health perspective. The major public health issues include gambling addiction, family dysfunction and gambling by youth. Debates have emerged about the health, social and Cited by: This paper looks at the public health foundations of epidemiology, disease control and healthy public policy, and applies them to gambling. Major public health issues are analyzed within a North American context, including problem gambling trends amongst the general adult population and youth, and their impact on other specific CASINO-BEST.TOP by: This paper examines the public policy value of looking at gambling from a public health perspective. The manner in which social issues are framed will either expand or curtail public policy debates. The existing and traditional frames for gambling (e.g. gambling as a matter of individual freedom, gambling as a form of recreation) fail to consider research on the social and economic impacts of Cited by:
Joint Statement By Canadian Banks and Life Insurance Companies Regarding Annual Meeting Planning
Related Organization s. Under the Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health in , Canada and other member states pledged to take steps to improve health equity. The Manufacturers Life Insurance Company. Organization Profile. It has a spelling mistake.
Each of us is actively monitoring COVID developments and the directives from public health and government authorities for group gatherings and social distancing, and we have been taking a series of proactive precautionary measures to help support the health and well-being of our employees, clients and the general public.
This degree of care and concern extends to all of our shareholders and policyholders, and we have been carefully considering alternatives for our respective annual meetings. The health and well-being of our employees, clients, investors and communities is our collective priority. In line with the latest directives from public health and government authorities, we have jointly obtained a court order that allows us to hold our annual meetings, in whole or in part, using electronic means.
The order permits our meetings to be conducted over one or more of webcasting, teleconference or other electronic means, in each case in addition to, or instead of, an in-person meeting, and permits alternative means for distributing meeting materials. The order was obtained because Canadian banks and insurance companies are not permitted to conduct an electronic annual meeting in lieu of an in-person meeting without relief from the court.
We believe these precautions are prudent measures to protect the health and well-being of our stakeholders, while supporting shareholder and policyholder engagement and their ability to attend and exercise their rights. The specific arrangements for each annual meeting will be announced separately prior to the scheduled date. We encourage our shareholders and policyholders to visit our websites in advance of our annual meetings for the most current information.
Many factors have an influence on health. In addition to our individual genetics and lifestyle choices, where we are born, grow, live, work and age also have an important influence on our health. Determinants of health are the broad range of personal, social, economic and environmental factors that determine individual and population health. The main determinants of health include:. Social determinants of health refer to a specific group of social and economic factors within the broader determinants of health.
These relate to an individual's place in society, such as income, education or employment. Experiences of discrimination, racism and historical trauma are important social determinants of health for certain groups such as Indigenous Peoples, LGBTQ and Black Canadians.
Canada is one of the healthiest countries in the world. However, some Canadians are healthier and have more opportunities to lead a healthy life.
Differences in the health status of individuals and groups are called health inequalities. These differences can be due to your genes and the choices you make. For example, whether you exercise or drink alcohol. However, the social determinants of health can also have an important influence on health. For example, Canadians with higher incomes are often healthier than those with lower incomes. Health inequity refers to health inequalities that are unfair or unjust and modifiable.
For example, Canadians who live in remote or northern regions do not have the same access to nutritious foods such as fruits and vegetables as other Canadians.
Abilify lawsuits claim the manufacturer failed to warn patients of serious side effects like compulsive behavior gambling , stroke, hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. Despite concerns over stroke risks in elderly patients and weakened impulse control in adults, Bristol-Myers Squibb BMS continues to market Abilify as a safe and effective treatment for psychological disorders. These changes ensured that doctors and patients were informed of the possible risks of using the atypical antipsychotic drug.
In the U. In May , the U. A black box warning is the most severe warning that the FDA can issue a medication. Abilify has also been used for off-label uses for years. Many doctors have prescribed Abilify to elderly patients with dementia-induced psychosis, or to children with autism, to help with aggression and mood swings. None of the off-label uses for Abilify have been studied for efficacy or safety, and the drug is not approved by the FDA for these uses.
The most common claim in lawsuits is that use of the antipsychotic drug aripiprazole led to compulsive behavior — that is, uncontrollable urges, loss of impulse control, or addictive patterns. Patients have reported obsessions that lead to significant financial losses, unusual hypersexuality, which in some cases became sex addiction, or similar activities such as binge eating or compulsive shopping. Of these, the most often reported compulsion was gambling. Dozens of case reports support the link between Abilify use and compulsive behavior, especially pathological gambling.
Additionally, Abilify acts as a dopamine agonist, which means it stimulates a part of the brain responsible for rewarding feelings. Such feelings include those experienced after winning a bet, engaging in sexual activity, or eating a delicious meal. Although the science is inconclusive, this link did drive the European Medicines Agency EMA and Health Canada officials to order Bristol-Myers Squibb to change the labels on Abilify to reflect the risk for compulsive behavior and gambling addiction.
In , the FDA followed suit, requiring a black box warning on Abilify labels. Like several other antipsychotic medications, Abilify has been linked to an increased risk of stroke, which can be deadly. Despite these discoveries, Abilify is often prescribed as a treatment for dementia-induced psychosis in elderly patients, even though the drug is not approved to treat this mental disorder. In , the FDA issued a warning about the increased risk of death in elderly patients who take Abilify.